The Role

The Data Product Manager will work closely with the Product Owner to gather data and reporting requirements across the business.

The Product Manager is responsible for the planning and execution throughout the product lifecycle, including: gathering and prioritizing product and customer requirements, defining the product vision, and working closely with engineering, sales, marketing and support to ensure revenue and customer satisfaction goals are met. The Product Manager’s job also includes ensuring that the product supports the company’s overall Global strategy and goals.

As Product Manager, you will drive, define and coordinate the development of both existing and new product lines for the business. You will build products from initial concepts, and help to develop new ideas.

You must be able to communicate with all departments of the business, both local and global. You will work with an engineering counterpart to define product release requirements, including product scope, technical roadmap and resource allocation.

 

Key Responsibilities

Experience & Skills

 

This special anniversary edition of the Programmatic Playbook is a celebration of how far we’ve all come in digital over the last decade. As one of the pioneers in programmatic advertising, reflecting on the incredible innovation and massive growth of our industry and technological capabilities in the last 10 years is astounding.

In this Playbook we’ll show you how to succeed with programmatic, creating lasting connections with your customers and increasing ROI. 

Above the Fold

refers to positioning- part of the webpage that is visible without scrolling. See ‘Below the Fold’.

Ad Blocker

Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed

Ad Exchange

A digital marketplace that enables advertisers and publishers to buy and sell advertising space, often through real-time auctions. They’re mostly used to sell display, video and mobile ad inventory.

Ad Insertion

when an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.

Ad Network

an aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad serving is normally performed either by a web publisher or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad Tech

Ad tech, short for advertising technology, refers to all technologies, software and services used for delivering, controlling and targeting online ads.

Ad Slot

Is the area on a web page set aside for the display of ads.

Ad Transfers

The successful display of an advertiser’s website after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and redirects or “transfers” the user’s browser to an advertiser’s website. If the user successfully displays the advertiser’s website, an ad transfer is recorded.

Ad Verification

A service that confirms if an ad ran where it was intended on behalf of the advertiser.

Ad View

When the ad is seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.

Affiliate Marketing

Works on an agreement between two sites; one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site and in return the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

Banner

A graphic advertising image displayed on a web page. See iab.net for voluntary guidelines defining specifications of banner ads.

Behavioral Targeting

A technique used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual’s web browsing behavior such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made to select which advertisements to be displayed to that individual.

Below the Fold

The part of a webpage that can’t be seen without scrolling down. See ‘Above the Fold’.

Bid

Refers to the amount of money that an advertiser is willing to pay each time a web searcher clicks on an ad and visits their website.

Bid Request

In order to sell inventory in real-time, online publishers need to submit bid request information, such as domain URL, banner types, floor price and position.

Bid Response

Participating in an auction requires the submission of an answer to the publisher’s bid request: the Bid Response. This may contain bid price, Seat ID (identifies the buyer) and target URL.

Blacklist

A list of websites that an advertiser will not permit their ads to be placed on. These sites often contain content that is not aligned with the brand image of the advertiser.

Bonus Impressions

Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Bot

Software that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a bot is endowed with the capability to react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of bots are agents and spiders. Bots are used by companies like search engines to discover websites for indexing.

Brand Safety

A set of practices and tools that ensures the advertiser’s brand is not damaged as a result of the improper or inappropriate placement of ads.

Buyer

An agency representing buyers that attempts to buy ad inventory on behalf of advertisers.

Cache

Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Caches can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM) and disk (hard drive) cache.

Cache Ad Impressions

The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.

Campaign Dashboard

Is a collection of charts and graphs that provide a snapshot of campaign performance so executives can identify problems or marketplace opportunities and shift gears, if a better course of action is required.

Conversion

When someone clicks on an ad and performs an action determined by the advertiser (i.e. making a purchase, subscribing to a newsletter, etc.)

Conversion Rate

The number of visitors expressed as a percentage who “convert” after visiting a site through an email or ad. Rates are calculated by taking the number of conversions and dividing that by the total number of ads clicked during the same time frame.

Cost Per Engagement

This is a model where the impressions are free; advertisers only pay when a user actively engages with an ad (i.e. clicks, watches, rolls-over the ad).

Channel

1) a band or similar content; 2) a type of sales outlet (also known as channel of distribution), for example, retail, catalog or e-commerce.

Click Fraud

Click fraud is a type of Internet crime that occurs in a pay-per-click online advertising when a person, automated script or computer program imitates a legitimate user of a web browser clicking on an ad, for the purpose of generating a charge-per-click without having actual interest in the target of the ad’s link.

Click Rate

Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.

Click-Through-Rate (CTR)

Used to measure the success of an online or mobile advertising campaign, CTR is the number of users who clicked on an ad/number of times the ad was delivered.

Clickbait

Website content that is aimed at generating advertising revenue, especially at the expense of quality or accuracy. It mainly relies on sensationalist headlines to attract click-throughs.

Clicks

1) metric which measures the reaction of a user to an Internet ad. There are three types of clicks: click-throughs; in-unit clicks and mouse-overs; 2) the opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server; 3) the result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links the advertiser’s intended website or another page or frame within the website; 4) metric which measures the reaction of user to linked editorial content.

Content Grazing

This refers to the common multi-device practice of using two or more screens at the same time to access unrelated content (e.g. watching a show on TV and writing an email on a smartphone or tablet.

Contextual Targeting

A form of targeted advertising that scans media for context and automatically serves ads based on the content displayed to the user.

Cookie

A small piece of information (i.e. program code) that is stored on a browser for the purses of identifying that browser during audience activity and between visits/sessions.

Cookie Buster

Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.

Cookie Syncing

The process of mapping user IDs from one system to another.

CPA (Cost-Per-Action)

cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. “Actions” include such things as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition, or a click.

CPC (Cost-Per-Click)

Cost of advertising based on the number of times a customer clicks on an advert instead of the number of impressions.

CPL (Cost-Per-Lead)

Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.

CPM (Cost-Per-Mile, more commonly referred to as Cost-Per-Thousand)

Media term describing the cost of 1,000 impressions (“mile” means thousand in Latin). For example, if a website publisher charges $1.50 CPM, that means an advertiser will pay $1.50 for every 1,000 impressions of its ad. To calculate the CPM for a campaign, divide the budget of the campaign by the number of impressions and multiply by a thousand. E.g. (15,000/10,000,000) *1000= $1.50 CPM.

DCO (Dynamic Creative Optimization)

A dynamic creative ad is a personalized unique ad built in real-time when an ad request is delivered to an ad server. The dynamic ad is created on the fly by using a unique ad template and different elements pulled from a merchant product feed.

Direct Response Advertising

A goal of soliciting an immediate, near-term action from a viewer.

Display Advertising

A form of online advertising where an advertiser’s message is shown on a destination webpage in graphic format.

DMP (Data Management Platform)

A database of publisher and user data. The software manages and sorts multiple data points then segments for businesses to use.

DSP (Demand-Side-Platform)

Allows advertisers and ad agencies to more easily access and efficiently buy ad inventory across multiple ad exchanges through one interface because the DSP aggregates inventory from multiple ad exchanges, simplifying the process.

Dwell Rate

Measures the actual length of time a user’s cursor is stationary on one device, testing the engagement with ads and various other characteristics.

Dynamic IP Address

An IP address (assigned by an ISP to a client PC) that changes periodically.

Dynamic Pricing

The purchase price for an ad impression that is determined via a real-time auction rather than a predetermined fixed rate.

eCPM

Term describing the effective cost of 1,000 impressions (“mile” means thousand in Latin). In online advertising, eCPM translates to the advertising revenue generated per 1,000 impressions. To work this out, you must divide the total advertising earnings from a campaign by the total number of impressions and then multiply by 1,000. This leaves you with how much you’re earning on average from your CPM campaign.

Engagement

A form of marketing that directly connects a consumer with a brand Examples of this are “likes” on a Facebook fan page, retweets of a brand tweet on Twitter or comments on a blog.

Expandable Banners

A banner ad which can expand to as large as 468×240 after a user clicks on it or after a user moves his/her cursor over the banner. See iab.net for the IAB IMU guidelines.

First Look

Prioritized access to selected advertisers. Instead of a highest bidder winning the auction, the preferred advertiser gets the first refusal of an ad space; within an auction that has a pre-determined floor price.

First-Party-Data

Is information collected and stored directly by website publishers, retailers and other types of companies about their site visitors or customers.

Floating Ads

An ad or ads that appear within the main browser window on top of the web page’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.

Floor Price

The minimum selling price set by a publisher on an ad exchange for selling an ad impression.

Fold

An ad or content that is viewable as soon as the webpage appears. A user does not need to scroll down or sideways to see it.

Frequency

The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage ad frequency.

Frequency Capping

Refers to the practice of restricting the number of times an ad is seen in a particular period (also referred to as Capping).

Geotargeting

Displaying (or preventing the display of) content based on automated or assumed knowledge of an end user’s position in the real world. Relevant to both PC and mobile data services.
High Impact Units: large canvas advertising formats that take up much of the webpage and are well known for driving higher response rates (clicks, interaction, engagement). They can often have interactive elements to them.

Impression

A measurement of responses from a web server to a page request from the user browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to opportunity to see the page by the user.

Inventory

The number of ads available for sale on a website.

Keyword

Specific word or series of words entered into a search engine by the user that produce a list of websites related to the keyword(s).

Keyword Targeting

The use of specific keywords to find related content.

KPI (Key Performance Indicators)

Key Performance Indicators are objectives that help define and measure the progress of goals set by the organization.

Linear Video Ads

Refers to an ad that takes over the full view of the video and is presented before, between or after the video content has been consumer by the user.

Meta-DSP

An innovative trading platform that unifies the world’s leading DSPs through one single entry point, creating a holistic view of the media ecosystem. Two-way API connections enable changes to be made in each platform, running an advertising campaign across multiple DSPs and technologies at the same time.

Mid-roll

Form of online video advertisement that appears mid-way through an online video. See ‘Pre-roll’ and ‘Post-roll’.

Multi-Platform

Multiple Demand Side Platforms (DSPs) incorporated into one advertising trading platform, such as The Exchange Lab’s proprietary management trading platform, Proteus. A multi-platform approach provides efficiency, scale and the ability to reach audiences across all devices and channels.

Native

Describes a type of paid media where the ad experience follows the state structure of the environment in which it is placed, to mimic the user environment. It copies the site’s format to make it blend in, basically.

Omni

A combining form meaning “all”.

Omni-Platform

All platforms in one

OPA (Online Privacy Alliance)

These are a group of corporations and associations who have come together to introduce and promote business-wide actions that create an environment of trust and foster the protection of individuals’ privacy online.

Open Auction/Ad Exchange

An open ad exchange is where advertisers and agencies can buy ad impressions without prior clearance from marketers or publishers.

Optimization

The process of modifying your ads to improve campaign performance.

Opt-in

Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services.

Over-the-Top (OTT)

Video content that is accessed via the internet without the involvement of a television service provider. This includes Subscription Video-on-Demand (SVOD) services like Netflix and Hulu.

Pixel

small code placed on a website, unnoticeable to visitors and doesn’t affect performance. When new visitors arrive the pixel drops an anonymous browser cookie. Later, when cookied visitors browse the Internet, the cookies inform your retargeting provider to serve ads, ensuring your ads are served to a relevant audience.

PMP (Private Marketplace)

A closed environment for publishers to sample programmatic- setting a minimum price, access, advertisers, and inventory. This inventory is not otherwise available through an open auction.

Pop-Under Ad

Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, re-sized or minimized.

Pop-Up Ad

Ad that appears in a separate window on top of content already on-screen. Similar to a daughter window, but without an associated banner.

Post-roll

An online video ad placement that appears at the end of an online video. See ‘Pre-roll’ and ‘Mid-roll’.

PPC (Pay-Per-Click)

An advert mail message. See ‘CPC’.

Pre-roll

Form of online video ad placement where the advertisement is played before the content video plays. See ‘Post-roll’ and ‘Mid-roll’.

Programmatic

Programmatic ad buying is the elimination of paper-based manual media buying to an automated process.

Programmatic Direct

Data-driven media buying through a web-based interface. This is the automation of processes involved in buying and selling media, which used to be quite an admin heavy process of order forms and RFPs (request for proposals).

Programmatic TV (PTV)

Is technology that enables brands and agencies to buy TV ads through programmatic means, rather than being traded manually.

Publisher

An individual or organization that prepares, issues and disseminates content for public distribution or sale via one or more media.

Reach

1) Unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category- also called unduplicated audience; 2) the total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.

Remnant Inventory

Inventory that a publisher is unable to sell directly that is then typically turned over to a third-party to sell.

Responsive Design

A web design process enabling content to re-size, reformat, reshape and re-position itself in real-time to fit the browsing screen of a user.

Retargeting

Allows online advertisers to target consumers based on their previous interactions with a website. It acts as a ‘reminder’ to site visitors who have not yet purchased. Also referred to as remarketing or behavioral targeting.

RTB (Real-Time Bidding)

Real-time bidding refers to the buying and selling of online ad impressions through real-time auctions that occur in the time it takes a webpage to load. Also known as RTA or Real-Time Advertising.

Scalability

Refers to the audience reach available in marketing campaigns.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Is the process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a website from search engines via “natural” (organic or algorithmic) search results.

Showrooming

When consumers compare prices on mobile whilst out in a traditional brick and mortar shop.

Skins

Customized sets of graphics used in display advertising as a highly-visible wallpaper.

Skippable Pre-Roll

In-stream video ads that allow viewers to skip ahead to non-advertisement video content after playing for a few seconds.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

Provides a secure connection between websites and Internet browsers, enabling private data transition online. An SSL secured site displays a padlock in the browser URL. Some ad exchanges place restrictions on the types of ads that run on these sites and require secure creative placements.

SSP (Supply-Side Platform)

Enables publishers to plug into the ad exchanges to make their inventory available. Through SSPs, publishers hope to gain the highest eCPM for their inventory, as opposed to selling it at low-cost remnant prices.

Third Party Ad Server

Independent outsources companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers’ declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.

Third-Party Data

Data obtained through a multitude of Internet interactions from outside sources. It is used to help create consumer segments for targeted ads.

Trading Desk

A third-party company that licenses and supports DSP technology, managing programmatic, bid-based media and audience buying on behalf of advertisers/agencies.

TV Syncing

Using geolocation, behavioral data and device signals, TV syncing triggers online ad campaigns in real-time to coincide with brand adverts being shown on TV.

Viewability

Is an online advertising metric that aims only to track the impressions that have been seen by a user.

Viewability Rate

Percentage of ad impressions which are actually seen by a user. Current viewable impression standards set by the Media Ratings Council (MRC) are that at least 50% of ad pixels in an ad are seen for at least one second. For a video, it is required that 2 continuous seconds of the ad is played.

Weather Targeting

Uses location-based data automatically to serve a targeted ad to a user, based on real-time weather conditions, current temperature, wind speeds and humidity.

Whitelist

A list of trustworthy websites an advertiser allows their adverts to be placed on.

Win Rate

Is the ratio of submitted bids and won impressions (comes as a percentage).

Yield Optimization

Technique employed by publishers to determine the value of their ad impressions in order to manage the flow of inventory and improve performance.

Above the Fold

refers to positioning- part of the webpage that is visible without scrolling. See ‘Below the Fold’.

Ad Blocker

Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed

Ad Exchange

A digital marketplace that enables advertisers and publishers to buy and sell advertising space, often through real-time auctions. They’re mostly used to sell display, video and mobile ad inventory.

Ad Insertion

when an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.

Ad Network

an aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad serving is normally performed either by a web publisher or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad Tech

Ad tech, short for advertising technology, refers to all technologies, software and services used for delivering, controlling and targeting online ads.

Ad Slot

Is the area on a web page set aside for the display of ads.

Ad Transfers

The successful display of an advertiser’s website after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and redirects or “transfers” the user’s browser to an advertiser’s website. If the user successfully displays the advertiser’s website, an ad transfer is recorded.

Ad Verification

A service that confirms if an ad ran where it was intended on behalf of the advertiser.

Ad View

When the ad is seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.

Affiliate Marketing

Works on an agreement between two sites; one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site and in return the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

Banner

A graphic advertising image displayed on a web page. See iab.net for voluntary guidelines defining specifications of banner ads.

Behavioral Targeting

A technique used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual’s web browsing behavior such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made to select which advertisements to be displayed to that individual.

Below the Fold

The part of a webpage that can’t be seen without scrolling down. See ‘Above the Fold’.

Bid

Refers to the amount of money that an advertiser is willing to pay each time a web searcher clicks on an ad and visits their website.

Bid Request

In order to sell inventory in real-time, online publishers need to submit bid request information, such as domain URL, banner types, floor price and position.

Bid Response

Participating in an auction requires the submission of an answer to the publisher’s bid request: the Bid Response. This may contain bid price, Seat ID (identifies the buyer) and target URL.

Blacklist

A list of websites that an advertiser will not permit their ads to be placed on. These sites often contain content that is not aligned with the brand image of the advertiser.

Bonus Impressions

Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Bot

Software that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a bot is endowed with the capability to react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of bots are agents and spiders. Bots are used by companies like search engines to discover websites for indexing.

Brand Safety

A set of practices and tools that ensures the advertiser’s brand is not damaged as a result of the improper or inappropriate placement of ads.

Buyer

An agency representing buyers that attempts to buy ad inventory on behalf of advertisers.

Cache

Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Caches can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM) and disk (hard drive) cache.

Cache Ad Impressions

The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.

Campaign Dashboard

Is a collection of charts and graphs that provide a snapshot of campaign performance so executives can identify problems or marketplace opportunities and shift gears, if a better course of action is required.

Conversion

When someone clicks on an ad and performs an action determined by the advertiser (i.e. making a purchase, subscribing to a newsletter, etc.)

Conversion Rate

The number of visitors expressed as a percentage who “convert” after visiting a site through an email or ad. Rates are calculated by taking the number of conversions and dividing that by the total number of ads clicked during the same time frame.

Cost Per Engagement

This is a model where the impressions are free; advertisers only pay when a user actively engages with an ad (i.e. clicks, watches, rolls-over the ad).

Channel

1) a band or similar content; 2) a type of sales outlet (also known as channel of distribution), for example, retail, catalog or e-commerce.

Click Fraud

Click fraud is a type of Internet crime that occurs in a pay-per-click online advertising when a person, automated script or computer program imitates a legitimate user of a web browser clicking on an ad, for the purpose of generating a charge-per-click without having actual interest in the target of the ad’s link.

Click Rate

Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.

Click-Through-Rate (CTR)

Used to measure the success of an online or mobile advertising campaign, CTR is the number of users who clicked on an ad/number of times the ad was delivered.

Clickbait

Website content that is aimed at generating advertising revenue, especially at the expense of quality or accuracy. It mainly relies on sensationalist headlines to attract click-throughs.

Clicks

1) metric which measures the reaction of a user to an Internet ad. There are three types of clicks: click-throughs; in-unit clicks and mouse-overs; 2) the opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server; 3) the result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links the advertiser’s intended website or another page or frame within the website; 4) metric which measures the reaction of user to linked editorial content.

Content Grazing

This refers to the common multi-device practice of using two or more screens at the same time to access unrelated content (e.g. watching a show on TV and writing an email on a smartphone or tablet.

Contextual Targeting

A form of targeted advertising that scans media for context and automatically serves ads based on the content displayed to the user.

Cookie

A small piece of information (i.e. program code) that is stored on a browser for the purses of identifying that browser during audience activity and between visits/sessions.

Cookie Buster

Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.

Cookie Syncing

The process of mapping user IDs from one system to another.

CPA (Cost-Per-Action)

cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. “Actions” include such things as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition, or a click.

CPC (Cost-Per-Click)

Cost of advertising based on the number of times a customer clicks on an advert instead of the number of impressions.

CPL (Cost-Per-Lead)

Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.

CPM (Cost-Per-Mile, more commonly referred to as Cost-Per-Thousand)

Media term describing the cost of 1,000 impressions (“mile” means thousand in Latin). For example, if a website publisher charges $1.50 CPM, that means an advertiser will pay $1.50 for every 1,000 impressions of its ad. To calculate the CPM for a campaign, divide the budget of the campaign by the number of impressions and multiply by a thousand. E.g. (15,000/10,000,000) *1000= $1.50 CPM.

DCO (Dynamic Creative Optimization)

A dynamic creative ad is a personalized unique ad built in real-time when an ad request is delivered to an ad server. The dynamic ad is created on the fly by using a unique ad template and different elements pulled from a merchant product feed.

Direct Response Advertising

A goal of soliciting an immediate, near-term action from a viewer.

Display Advertising

A form of online advertising where an advertiser’s message is shown on a destination webpage in graphic format.

DMP (Data Management Platform)

A database of publisher and user data. The software manages and sorts multiple data points then segments for businesses to use.

DSP (Demand-Side-Platform)

Allows advertisers and ad agencies to more easily access and efficiently buy ad inventory across multiple ad exchanges through one interface because the DSP aggregates inventory from multiple ad exchanges, simplifying the process.

Dwell Rate

Measures the actual length of time a user’s cursor is stationary on one device, testing the engagement with ads and various other characteristics.

Dynamic IP Address

An IP address (assigned by an ISP to a client PC) that changes periodically.

Dynamic Pricing

The purchase price for an ad impression that is determined via a real-time auction rather than a predetermined fixed rate.

eCPM

Term describing the effective cost of 1,000 impressions (“mile” means thousand in Latin). In online advertising, eCPM translates to the advertising revenue generated per 1,000 impressions. To work this out, you must divide the total advertising earnings from a campaign by the total number of impressions and then multiply by 1,000. This leaves you with how much you’re earning on average from your CPM campaign.

Engagement

A form of marketing that directly connects a consumer with a brand Examples of this are “likes” on a Facebook fan page, retweets of a brand tweet on Twitter or comments on a blog.

Expandable Banners

A banner ad which can expand to as large as 468×240 after a user clicks on it or after a user moves his/her cursor over the banner. See iab.net for the IAB IMU guidelines.

First Look

Prioritized access to selected advertisers. Instead of a highest bidder winning the auction, the preferred advertiser gets the first refusal of an ad space; within an auction that has a pre-determined floor price.

First-Party-Data

Is information collected and stored directly by website publishers, retailers and other types of companies about their site visitors or customers.

Floating Ads

An ad or ads that appear within the main browser window on top of the web page’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.

Floor Price

The minimum selling price set by a publisher on an ad exchange for selling an ad impression.

Fold

An ad or content that is viewable as soon as the webpage appears. A user does not need to scroll down or sideways to see it.

Frequency

The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage ad frequency.

Frequency Capping

Refers to the practice of restricting the number of times an ad is seen in a particular period (also referred to as Capping).

Geotargeting

Displaying (or preventing the display of) content based on automated or assumed knowledge of an end user’s position in the real world. Relevant to both PC and mobile data services.
High Impact Units: large canvas advertising formats that take up much of the webpage and are well known for driving higher response rates (clicks, interaction, engagement). They can often have interactive elements to them.

No Result!

Impression

A measurement of responses from a web server to a page request from the user browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to opportunity to see the page by the user.

Inventory

The number of ads available for sale on a website.

No Result!

Keyword

Specific word or series of words entered into a search engine by the user that produce a list of websites related to the keyword(s).

Keyword Targeting

The use of specific keywords to find related content.

KPI (Key Performance Indicators)

Key Performance Indicators are objectives that help define and measure the progress of goals set by the organization.

Linear Video Ads

Refers to an ad that takes over the full view of the video and is presented before, between or after the video content has been consumer by the user.

Meta-DSP

An innovative trading platform that unifies the world’s leading DSPs through one single entry point, creating a holistic view of the media ecosystem. Two-way API connections enable changes to be made in each platform, running an advertising campaign across multiple DSPs and technologies at the same time.

Mid-roll

Form of online video advertisement that appears mid-way through an online video. See ‘Pre-roll’ and ‘Post-roll’.

Multi-Platform

Multiple Demand Side Platforms (DSPs) incorporated into one advertising trading platform, such as The Exchange Lab’s proprietary management trading platform, Proteus. A multi-platform approach provides efficiency, scale and the ability to reach audiences across all devices and channels.

Native

Describes a type of paid media where the ad experience follows the state structure of the environment in which it is placed, to mimic the user environment. It copies the site’s format to make it blend in, basically.

Omni

A combining form meaning “all”.

Omni-Platform

All platforms in one

OPA (Online Privacy Alliance)

These are a group of corporations and associations who have come together to introduce and promote business-wide actions that create an environment of trust and foster the protection of individuals’ privacy online.

Open Auction/Ad Exchange

An open ad exchange is where advertisers and agencies can buy ad impressions without prior clearance from marketers or publishers.

Optimization

The process of modifying your ads to improve campaign performance.

Opt-in

Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services.

Over-the-Top (OTT)

Video content that is accessed via the internet without the involvement of a television service provider. This includes Subscription Video-on-Demand (SVOD) services like Netflix and Hulu.

Pixel

small code placed on a website, unnoticeable to visitors and doesn’t affect performance. When new visitors arrive the pixel drops an anonymous browser cookie. Later, when cookied visitors browse the Internet, the cookies inform your retargeting provider to serve ads, ensuring your ads are served to a relevant audience.

PMP (Private Marketplace)

A closed environment for publishers to sample programmatic- setting a minimum price, access, advertisers, and inventory. This inventory is not otherwise available through an open auction.

Pop-Under Ad

Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, re-sized or minimized.

Pop-Up Ad

Ad that appears in a separate window on top of content already on-screen. Similar to a daughter window, but without an associated banner.

Post-roll

An online video ad placement that appears at the end of an online video. See ‘Pre-roll’ and ‘Mid-roll’.

PPC (Pay-Per-Click)

An advert mail message. See ‘CPC’.

Pre-roll

Form of online video ad placement where the advertisement is played before the content video plays. See ‘Post-roll’ and ‘Mid-roll’.

Programmatic

Programmatic ad buying is the elimination of paper-based manual media buying to an automated process.

Programmatic Direct

Data-driven media buying through a web-based interface. This is the automation of processes involved in buying and selling media, which used to be quite an admin heavy process of order forms and RFPs (request for proposals).

Programmatic TV (PTV)

Is technology that enables brands and agencies to buy TV ads through programmatic means, rather than being traded manually.

Publisher

An individual or organization that prepares, issues and disseminates content for public distribution or sale via one or more media.

No Result!

Reach

1) Unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category- also called unduplicated audience; 2) the total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.

Remnant Inventory

Inventory that a publisher is unable to sell directly that is then typically turned over to a third-party to sell.

Responsive Design

A web design process enabling content to re-size, reformat, reshape and re-position itself in real-time to fit the browsing screen of a user.

Retargeting

Allows online advertisers to target consumers based on their previous interactions with a website. It acts as a ‘reminder’ to site visitors who have not yet purchased. Also referred to as remarketing or behavioral targeting.

RTB (Real-Time Bidding)

Real-time bidding refers to the buying and selling of online ad impressions through real-time auctions that occur in the time it takes a webpage to load. Also known as RTA or Real-Time Advertising.

Scalability

Refers to the audience reach available in marketing campaigns.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Is the process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a website from search engines via “natural” (organic or algorithmic) search results.

Showrooming

When consumers compare prices on mobile whilst out in a traditional brick and mortar shop.

Skins

Customized sets of graphics used in display advertising as a highly-visible wallpaper.

Skippable Pre-Roll

In-stream video ads that allow viewers to skip ahead to non-advertisement video content after playing for a few seconds.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

Provides a secure connection between websites and Internet browsers, enabling private data transition online. An SSL secured site displays a padlock in the browser URL. Some ad exchanges place restrictions on the types of ads that run on these sites and require secure creative placements.

SSP (Supply-Side Platform)

Enables publishers to plug into the ad exchanges to make their inventory available. Through SSPs, publishers hope to gain the highest eCPM for their inventory, as opposed to selling it at low-cost remnant prices.

Third Party Ad Server

Independent outsources companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers’ declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.

Third-Party Data

Data obtained through a multitude of Internet interactions from outside sources. It is used to help create consumer segments for targeted ads.

Trading Desk

A third-party company that licenses and supports DSP technology, managing programmatic, bid-based media and audience buying on behalf of advertisers/agencies.

TV Syncing

Using geolocation, behavioral data and device signals, TV syncing triggers online ad campaigns in real-time to coincide with brand adverts being shown on TV.

No Result!

Viewability

Is an online advertising metric that aims only to track the impressions that have been seen by a user.

Viewability Rate

Percentage of ad impressions which are actually seen by a user. Current viewable impression standards set by the Media Ratings Council (MRC) are that at least 50% of ad pixels in an ad are seen for at least one second. For a video, it is required that 2 continuous seconds of the ad is played.

Weather Targeting

Uses location-based data automatically to serve a targeted ad to a user, based on real-time weather conditions, current temperature, wind speeds and humidity.

Whitelist

A list of trustworthy websites an advertiser allows their adverts to be placed on.

Win Rate

Is the ratio of submitted bids and won impressions (comes as a percentage).

No Result!

Yield Optimization

Technique employed by publishers to determine the value of their ad impressions in order to manage the flow of inventory and improve performance.

No Result!

Not everything we see or read on the internet is true. The idea of fake news is obvious; an untrue story created to increase traffic, or in many cases, ad revenue. The problem lies in understanding who is publishing these articles and how we can filter what is true versus completely made up.

At The Exchange Lab, we take appropriate measures to protect a brand’s online presence. We use our platform’s ability to actively assess and block potential cases of fraud or non-brand safe environments. We also continually refresh white and blacklists to ensure that your brand is shown in the right environments.

“A squirrel dying in front of your house may be more relevant to your interests right now than people dying in Africa”- Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook Founder

A filter bubble is the result of website algorithms selectively guessing what a user prefers to see, based from their online profile (previous search history, click behavior, location etc.) Consequently, users become disengaged with content outside of their viewpoint or typical search queries- essentially isolating them into a “bubble”. The bubble effect is most prominently seen on Google search or Facebook social streams, where users get less exposure to conflicting viewpoints or news stories.

To be considered Artificial Intelligence (AI), a machine needs to exhibit intelligent behavior.  Programmatic clearly isn’t there yet.

While algorithms learn, AI can do it faster. This means AI will succeed and fail faster, increasing the speed of learning. AI is unlikely to replace the work of humans in advertising, but deep-learning and connected-learning technologies will begin to replace “traditional” programmatic methodologies and algorithms. This will likely drive increased performance in direct response (DR) and provide the ability to identify your target audience through a deeper understanding of your consumers.

Over-the-top, or more commonly known as OTT, is any television or video service that you receive over the internet. It is no surprise that services and apps like YouTube, Netflix, and streaming on Apple TV are disrupting traditional cable TV and subscription services, but how is this affecting programmatic advertising?

OTT services allow viewers to stream TV content online, providing the marketer with user-specific information: interests, web history and log-in information. The Exchange Lab can make sense of this information and deliver clients data-driven insights for their programmatic campaigns.

There have been many proclamations that programmatic TV is here over the past couple of years, however, to date there hasn’t been the true scale of inventory made available—yet.

As more on-demand content is streamed through services, advertisers gain another channel to reach targeted audiences. What’s really interesting is The Exchange Lab’s ability to offer a single buying point across TV, desktop and mobile. This allows marketers to get a holistic view of all channels when it comes to their media buying, creating a more strategic and cross-channel communication with customers.

The real-time bidding (RTB) auction refers to bidding for users who fit an advertiser’s target market. RTB is not like a traditional auction, where you accept the next highest bid by raising your hand. RTB works on a second price auction (where the winning bid pays one cent more than the next highest bid). When a user impression is sent out to the exchanges in the bidding process, every DSP is given the choice to bid for the impression. This bid only happens once. You either win or lose the impression.

Ad tech is complicated. Data is everywhere and when it comes to data driven marketing, it’s important to understand the differences.

1. First-Party Data

First-party data is advertiser data. This can include data from behaviors, actions or interests demonstrated across the advertiser website(s) and data within the advertiser CRM. The Exchange Lab can get actionable first-party data in two ways:

A client direct market place (DMP). In this situation, the client plugs their DMP into The Exchange Lab’s suite of platforms
The Exchange Lab places a pixel on the advertiser’s site
2. Second-Party Data

The Exchange Lab defines second-party data as optimization data. This is the data that The Exchange Lab collects throughout the duration of a campaign regarding specific trends towards conversion or click, be that publisher information, time of day, day of week information or path to conversion information. The term second-party data is relatively new term to the online world, so other definitions do exist.

3. Third-Party Data

Third-party data is an aggregation of many different types of data, for example website data. External companies (hence the term 3rd party) collect data from multiple sources including but not limited to publishers, websites and credit agencies to allow buyers such as The Exchange Lab to apply them to online campaigns and aid targeting. Typical data can include demographic, audience, HHI or shopper intender information.

A third-party ad server allows advertisers to serve their creative to various websites or media buyers (such as The Exchange Lab) and to track the different metrics associated with online activity, such as impressions, clicks and conversions. As a multi-platform solution, The Exchange Lab favors this approach as it ensures we can track conversions separately across different platforms. In cases where a client does not have a third-party ad server, The Exchange Lab can supply one. While common in North America, Europe and Australia, they are less prevalent in the Middle East, Africa and Pacific. Lack of third-party ad serving (3PAS) capability can be linked to shortage of programmatic inventory.

Not at all.

More and more premium publishers are embracing programmatic and making their inventory available. Since the dawn of digital, premium inventory has been sold to clients via direct sales teams with guarantees surrounding placement and positioning. Today, premium inventory is also available through open exchanges and private market places meaning that a site’s home page, or a popular and high quality section of a site, is also likely available through programmatic.

Remnant inventory, sold after premium inventory has been pre-sold by a direct salesforce, was once the traditional fair of networks. The rise of programmatic has managed to disprove the concept of “remnant”, as one bids on the user, not necessarily on the site. In doing so, the value of the impression is whatever the value of the user is, not a pre-defined low cost, bulk buy to achieve inventory fill. At The Exchange Lab, we have access to your audiences across the sites and devices Brand safety – do you know where your ads are?

Brand safety has always been a hot topic and at The Exchange Lab there are a number of processes in place to ensure all campaigns run in brand safe environments.

These include:

1. Blacklists? Whitelists? Which is which?

The Exchange Lab has a blacklist of sites that are not suitable or appropriate for your campaigns to run on. These blacklists are regularly updated with the URLs of sites deemed inappropriate and we ensure specific exclusions are made based on the brand safety sensitivity of individual clients. Whitelists consist of activity on inventory that has already been vetted by the advertiser and The Exchange Lab welcomes any whitelists that the advertiser wants to run on. Note, whitelists can lead to availability issues and increased CPM.

2. Content verification…meaning?

The Exchange Lab uses market-leading content verification technology and works together with exchanges to proactively exclude and block bots, toolbar publishers, hijackers and other sources of bad or unwanted inventory prior to evaluating bid opportunities. The Exchange Lab can work with any content verification partner that our clients already have a relationship with.

3. Platform-level screening and the importance of the human eye

The Exchange Lab believes the automated processes used by Demand Side Platforms (DSPs) and exchanges to screen different site content requires a human element to work in tandem with the automation. The philosophy we employ to safeguard brands means we don’t just rely on technology and algorithms to deliver a brand safe environment, everything passes human eyes to ensure all specifications are met.

Transparency is one of the most complex topics within digital media today. There are multiple facets and key performance indicators (KPI’s) to consider which are primarily based on stats and financial implications. At The Exchange Lab, we are committed to supplying our clients with full reporting based on the metrics of their campaign. If you have specific questions relating to transparency, we encourage you to engage your representative at The Exchange Lab directly.

In a complex marketplace, ads that have actually been seen by consumers are paramount. The difference between a viewable and a served impression is, with a viewable impression, a consumer actually saw the advertisement; whereas with a served impression this is not guaranteed. A viewable impression, by definition, means at least 50% of its pixels are visible for at least one second, compared to a served advertisement that may have been unseen by the user. The guarantee that your brand is purchasing viewable impressions is vital to ensure campaign quality and a return on your investment.

Chris Dobson, CEO, The Exchange Lab, says that “There’s no doubt that obligatory best practice is required across the digital advertising industry. We need to work together to put a stop to irritating and irresponsible advertising, and that includes ensuring brand safety, and combatting ad fraud. Fraud alone is set to cost the ad industry in excess of USD$16bn (£12bn) this year, rising to USD$39bn (£30bn) by 2020, if we don’t get a grip on it now. If advertisers needed an impetus to get behind the IAB’s initiative, then this is it.

“What’s promising, is Google and Facebook’s commitment to implement the Gold Standards as the largest players. This positive move from the top will hopefully see other companies follow suit. All industry players are individually responsible for raising standards and need to be held to account where this doesn’t happen.”

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Marketing: An investment, not a cost

Chris Dobson, CEO, The Exchange Lab, echoes this sentiment, saying that at a time when the economy is this uncertain, online marketing offers necessary targeting capabilities: “Although economic instabilities may have dampened overall marketing spend, it’s no surprise to see that digital advertising budgets are on an upwards trajectory. There’s nothing new in marketers moving ad spend from traditional channels to online, but in this period of uncertainty, the data and insights that digital advertising provides, and which allow for better targeting and optimisation, are crucial. Digital enables brands, where relevant, to respond in real time to issues or crises, which just isn’t possible in print or TV. And, crucially, digital ensures, at least where advertising is concerned, that uncertainty is not an issue.”

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To say the holiday season is busy would be an understatement – full of shopping lists, festive parties, deadlines at work, and school shows – the list of seasonal commitments seems to increase each year. During the holiday season, online ad impressions typically increase 50% and conversion rates increase by 60%. Brands pull out all the stops to reach their shoppers at a time when their lists are long and their need for convenient, affordable solutions is high. Programmatic advertising ensures brands are prepared to meet the unique needs of their seasonal shoppers when and where it really matters.

Data as the difference

Tapping into data to inform your creative and reach your audience can have a big impact on your campaign’s success. The modern shopping experience is connected across devices and always-on. One of the most effective ways to reach customers on their seasonal shopping journey is by harnessing your first-party data in digital ad campaigns. Utilizing the data that’s gathered by your brand directly from customers often translates to more accurate targeting capabilities and reliable insights on what your audience responds positively to. When used in conjunction with third-party data and insights gathered virtually in real-time during your campaign flight, marketers create a well-rounded opportunity to ensure their customers are receiving offers that positively influence their shopping experience rather than add to the noise online.

Programmatic advertising ensures brands are prepared to meet the unique needs of their seasonal shoppers when and where it really matters.  

Implementing the data from previous holiday campaigns and sales figures also helps determine where to focus attention, which formats work and which products are most popular- allowing brands to personalize content for consumers. According to recent research from McKinsey & Company companies that use data-driven personalization as the core of their marketing and sales decisions can improve ROI by 15%-20%.

The season for simplicity

Do your shoppers a favor and simplify their experience with your brand. If your digital ads feature a deal, display the code on the banner so it’s accessible immediately without necessarily having to click through. Ensure your ads are functioning correctly across tablets and smartphones, this may seem like a no brainer but you’d be surprised how many are deployed or designed incorrectly. This is a seemingly small detail that makes a huge difference when considering that a staggering 82% of consumers continued to use their smartphones in store to help them make purchase decisions.

Clear and fun call to actions are great all year round, but especially leading up to the holidays as people are looking for solutions and short on time. Sending shoppers messages that solve their seasonal dilemmas and entertain them along the way is key. For example, Hotel Tonight made it easier for holiday travelers to visit family without necessarily having to stay with them. The solution they provided and promoted through their digital campaign was an easy-to-book hotel room on their website. The campaign tapped into a series of digital touch points including a contest where travelers shared their worst or most comical holiday-themed family memory on Facebook and Twitter using the #HotelTonight hashtag for a chance to win a $500 voucher. They added entertainment value by layering print and audio ads highlighting examples of quirky or funny relatives. The campaign tapped into the emotional insight of dealing with odd relatives during the holidays, but without being off-putting while offering an accessible, simple accommodation alternative.

Personalized problem-solving

Helping your customers purchase gifts for the people they care about during the holidays can and should be a personalized experience. We all have different people and presents on our lists so when shoppers feel personally assisted and creatively inspired they are more likely to follow through with the purchase whether that’s online or in-store. To succeed this season, you need to be a brand that offers custom solutions instead of waiting for shoppers to find you in a sea of offers and options.

Programmatic allows brands to collect and effectively analyze campaign data, along with first party data, to gain a better understanding of the needs of their consumers. During the holidays, when people are bombarded by hundreds of ads, brands have the chance to give shoppers access to exactly what they’re looking for, effectively being problem solvers on a small level but at a time of year when a little goes a long way. For example, if your customers have been searching for holiday ornaments or other decorations on your website, it could be a great opportunity to provide recommendations for other related products you offer such as gift wrapping and tape with a bundle price offer, making it an easy add-on to your customer’s cart before check-out.  Sometimes it’s the convenient offers that go the farthest.

Tis the season for highly targeted strategies, deals that dazzle and solutions that delight.

One example of a holiday campaign that delighted and delivered beyond an obvious offer came from Oreo Cookies. Oreo allowed customers to design their own package and have it delivered to their home. This turns something ordinary into a personalized experience for customers, encouraging them to engage with the brand on another level.

The gift of going local

Since 85% of consumers say they’d be more likely to shop in stores that provide coupons and special deals personalized just to them, advanced programmatic geotargeting can be especially useful for holiday campaigns with dynamic creative. Serving in-store promotions or product-specific ads to consumers within the perimeter of their store locations, advertisers can target those most likely to interact. With programmatic geotargeting, marketers can combine audience data filters and contextual layering with location signals to deliver hyper-relevant ads that resonate with shoppers craving convenience.

Creating mobile-friendly ads with local deals is also effective, especially since 72% of consumers used their mobile device to narrow down their purchase options while 60% used their smartphone to check local inventory.

Tis the season for highly targeted strategies, deals that dazzle and solutions that delight. Tying traditional advertising to data-driven digital efforts is key with almost 70% of senior executives saying they will spend more on marketing technology in 2017 than they did in 2016.  It’s more important than ever to tap into the power of digital advertising and if marketers focus their programmatic media dollars on keeping things personalized, simplified and localized this season they’ll have a holiday season worth celebrating.

Follow The Exchange Lab (@exchangelab) and AW360 (@advertisingweek) on Twitter.  

On Friday 6th October, The Exchange Lab returned from an exciting few days at the Festival of Marketing, where innovation and creativity were the buzz words on everyone’s lips.

Festival of Marketing took over Tobacco Dock in full force, a vast, modernised industrial building sprawling 2-floors. The upper floor was the dedicated ‘Campus’ for dynamic seminar sessions spanning a large mix of content streams from AI, Customer Experience and Insight, to Data & Analytics, Programmatic and Social, plus many more. The lower floor ‘Festival City’ was home to experience rooms, recharge zones and ‘the who’s who’ of innovative tech companies in the Silicon Roundabout offered immersive and interactive activities including the first ever VR Guinness World Record attempt.

The Exchange Lab hosted an exclusive, 90-minute programmatic workshop and lunch on Day 1. A full-house of delegates arrived to hear and interact with VP Client Services, Kate LeMessurier, who delivered an engaging and thoroughly thought-provoking session, “5 tactics to turbo-charge your programmatic”!

The Exchange Lab CEO, Chris Dobson, attended Day 2 to sit in on sessions in the AI and Programmatic streams as well as attend a private meeting with Director of Content for Centaur Media, and the woman of the moment, Ruth Mortimer. Chris and Ruth discussed everything from culture and independence to how to harness programmatic to benefit creativity and the future of TV.

Perhaps the most exciting element of the event and seemingly, the place to be, was the Silicon Roundabout, where The Exchange Lab had a bold and brave Engagement Pod offering plenty of exciting giveaways including branded Swell Bottles and Stationery plus 10 Year Limited Edition Playbooks and bespoke Lola’s Cupcakes! Our team of experts were on-site at our Pod and throughout the Festival meeting and connecting with faces new and old.

One of the key themes at this year’s Festival of Marketing was unsurprisingly, GDPR, although most of the conversation revolved around the uncertainty with no one person wishing to make too bold a claim. The Exchange Lab was crystal clear on it’s point of view that GDPR is certainly going to rattle the industry but we look forward to the new opportunities it will bring in allowing us to forge stronger levels of trust between our clients and their audiences.

As we close the door on this year’s Festival of Marketing, we are hugely excited about 2018 and what it will bring. Alongside GDPR, AI was also a key talking point and we expect this conversation to continue well into next year but we still need to clarify the difference between AI and machine learning. To further read our views on this topic, see here

Creativity and Data Science Need to Come Together for Customer Engagement

Ben Alpren, Head of Vendor Partnerships, The Exchange Lab, spoke to us from DMEXCO 2017 about customer engagement being a key topic of discussion at the event. Ben said, “In Sir John Hegarty’s keynote on the main stage, he talked about how creativity is the lynchpin to engaging consumers and therefore vital to any business operation. Up until recently, advertising has not been able to keep up with consumer engagement. The industry has often favored data at the expense of creativity – not because it wasn’t important, but due to a focus on performance and scale.

Ben said, “What is interesting is that advancements in the collection of data, through, for example, the Internet of Things, is enabling advertisers to create more bespoke, personalized and attractive ads. The creative versus data debate is one that has been discussed many times before, but as the industry evolves, it’s a debate that’s never been as relevant.”

Follow The Exchange Lab (@exchangelab) and MarTechSeries (@MarTechSeries) on Twitter.